By H. Murak. Delta State University.
Art therapy has been used in the healing process to relieve Art therapy stress and develop coping mechanisms 75mg plavix mastercard heart attack feat thea austin eye of the tiger, in an effort to The use of art to express feelings purchase plavix 75mg otc arrhythmia ketosis, emotions, and treat both the physical and mental needs of the patient. Although art therapy has traditionally centered on visual mediums (paintings, sculptures, drawings, etc. It is a two-part process, involving both the cre- ation of art and the discovery of its meaning. Rooted in Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung’s theories of the sub- Benefits conscious and unconscious,art therapy is based on the • Self-discovery. At its most successful, art therapy trig- premise that visual symbols and images are the most ac- gers an emotional catharsis (a sense of relief and well- cessible and natural form of communication to the being through the recognition and acknowledgement of human experience. The resulting artwork is then re- can build confidence and nurture feelings of self-worth. The Personal fulfillment comes from both the creative and analysis of the artwork typically enables a patient to gain the analytical components of the process. Art therapy can help individuals visual- to work through these issues in a constructive manner. Chronic stress can be for these activities, an important feature of effective talk harmful to both mind and body. It can weaken and therapy is that the patient/artist, not the therapist, direct damage the immune system, cause insomnia and de- the interpretation of their artwork. When used alone or in combination with tion of specific types of mental illness or traumatic other relaxation techniques such as guided imagery, art events. In the late 19th century, French psychiatrists Am- therapy can be a potent stress reliever. Art therapy ies on the visual characteristics of and symbolism in the can also help individuals cope with pain and promote artwork of the mentally ill. They found that there were physiological healing by identifying and working recurring themes and visual elements in the drawings of through anger and resentment issues and other emo- patients with specific types of mental illness. Art and healing: using expressive art to heal situations which they must interpret, thus projecting their your body, mind, and spirit. The test subject describes his or her reactions to elaborate inkblots presented on a se- ries of ten cards. Responses are interpreted with atten- Assessment, psychological tion to three factors: what parts or parts of each inkblot the The assessment of personality variables.
This method was developed by Koeler and Milstein in 1975 discount plavix 75mg with amex arrhythmia episode, and is used to produce mono- clonal antibodies (Fig order 75mg plavix free shipping blood pressure chart nih. Many monoclonal antibodies are still produced in mouse and rat cells, making them xenogeneic for hu- mans. Attempts to avoid the resulting rejection problems have involved the production of antibodies by human cells (which remains difficult), or the “humanization” of murine antibodies by recombinant insertion of the variable domains of a murine antibody adjacent to the constant domains of a human antibody. The generation of a transgenic mice, in which the Ig genes have been replaced by human genes, has made the production of hy- bridoma’s producing completely human antibodies possible. However, if the antigen is in a monomeric, or oligomeric, soluble form the B cell can only mount a response if it undergoes the process of T-B collaboration. Many infectious pathogens carry surface antigens with polyclonal activation properties (e. They then receive a second, in- travenous, dose of antigen twoto four days before cell fusion. Those spleen cells that fail to fuse to a myeloma cell die within one day of culture. Aminopterin blocks specific metabolic processes, but with the help of the intermediary metabolites (hypoxanthine and thymidine) spleen cells are able to complete these processes using auxiliary pathways. After this time, the cell culture is diluted such that there is, ideally, only one hy- bridoma within each well. If the result is positive, the hybridoma cells are subcloned several times to ensure clonality; with the specificity of the produced antibody being checked following each round to subcloning. Production of purely human mono- clonal antibodies is carried out using mice whose Ig genes have been completely replaced by human Ig genes. Immune Responses and Effector Mechanisms 71 repeated in a regular pattern (linear e.
For example 75mg plavix sale blood pressure medication used to treat acne, eating oats buy 75mg plavix with amex artery dorsalis pedis, lentils, and sunﬂower seeds either together or separately throughout the day provides all the essential amino acids. You could also combine whole-wheat pasta with white kidney beans or tofu with brown rice to get all the necessary amino acids. There are certain advantages of eating plant over animal proteins—they pro- vide ﬁbre and phytochemicals (antioxidants), do not contain saturated fat, and may play a role in disease prevention. Soy protein, for example, has been shown to signiﬁcantly lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and protect against bone loss. A number of studies have found lower risk of chronic disease in those who eat a plant-based diet. The Institute of Medicine recommends ranges for macronutrient intake that are associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intake of essential nutrients. They suggest that adults get 45–65 percent of calories from carbohydrates, 20–35 percent from fat, and 10–35 percent from protein. Ranges for children are similar, except that infants and younger children need a slightly higher proportion of fat (25–40 percent). They also provide valuable nutrients (vitamins, minerals, and es- sential fatty acids) and ﬁbre, which is important for intestinal health. Simple carbohydrates include naturally occurring sugars in milk and fruit, and reﬁned sugars (granulated sugar). There is a major difference among these simple carbohydrates: fruits offer a range of nutrients and ﬁbre, while reﬁned sugars provide empty calories and lack Macronutrients | 9 nutritional value. The World Health Organization recommends reducing sugar intake to below 10 percent of total calories. Aside from candy and baked goods, sugar is also found in pop, condiments (ketchup, barbecue sauces), juices, ice cream, and other sweets. Today many of our starches are reﬁned and processed, which strips the food of its ﬁbre and nutrients. For example, white bread, pasta, and rice are much less nutritious, so choose the brown or whole-grain products. Dietary ﬁbre is found in fruits, vegetables, beans, and the indigestible parts of whole grains such as wheat and oat bran. In addition to supporting intestinal health and proper elimination, ﬁbre also improves blood sugar balance, lowers cholesterol, reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer, and plays a role in weight management.
The first few letters of the word “hydroxide” are a dead giveaway that there’s a hydrogen atom in there; plus hydroxide ions are negatively charged trusted plavix 75 mg hypertension patho, which calls for that extra electron buy discount plavix 75 mg can blood pressure medication kill you. If the atoms had gained or lost electrons, it would be an ionic bond, but here they’re sharing — valiantly cohabiting, if you will. This is true whether an atom fills its outer shell by sharing, gaining, or losing electrons. Being such large molecules, proteins need to be built from complex molecules to begin with. Don’t forget that the Krebs cycle, during which pyruvate is broken down, occurs in the mitochondrion. Recall that during aero- bic exercise, you’re trying to circulate oxygen to your muscles. The other answers are incorrect because glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm, and anaerobic respiration isn’t one of the three cellular respiration processes. Just as you can’t power a lamp with a lump of coal, cells can’t use glucose directly. Chapter 2 The Cell: Life’s Basic Building Block In This Chapter Breaking through the cell membrane Aiming for the nucleus Sorting through what’s inside the cell Putting together proteins made to order Following the cell cycle ytology, from the Greek word cyto, which means “cell,” is the study of cells. Every living Cthing has cells, but not all living things have the same kinds of cells. Eukaryotes like humans (and all other organisms besides bacteria and viruses) have eukaryotic cells, each of which has a defined nucleus that controls and directs the cell’s activities, and cytosol, fluid material found in the gel-like cytoplasm that fills most of the cell. Plant cells have fibrous cell walls; animal cells do not, making do instead with a semipermeable cell mem- brane, which sometimes is called a plasma membrane or the plasmalemma. Because human cells don’t have cell walls, they look like gel-filled sacs with nuclei and tiny parts called organelles nestled inside when viewed through an electron microscope. In this chapter, we help you sort out what makes up a cell, what all those tiny parts do, and how cells act as protein-manufacturing plants to support life’s activities.